Glossary -- Somalia
- A large group of people believed to be descendants through
males of a common ancestor whose name is also the name of the clan.
Several clans constitute a clan-family (q.v.), and each
clan is divided into a number of lineages (q.v.).
- A group of clans (q.v.) believed to be linked
ultimately by descent from a common ancestor. The six major Somali
clan-families are Daarood, Hawiye, Isaaq, Dir, Digil, and
- client, clientage
- Clientage involves a relationship in which each party gains
something. The client attaches himself to a prominent person to
obtain protection, the possibility of advancement, and the like.
The patron acquires a follower and, in case of need, the services
of the client.
- An Islamic technical term relating to the glorifying of Allah
with certain fixed phases, repeated in a ritual order and
accompanied by special breathing and movements.
- Islamic blood compensation paid by a person who has committed
homicide or wounded another, including injuries in traffic
- fiscal year (FY)
- An annual period established for accounting purposes. The
Somali fiscal year is coterminous with the calendar year.
- franco valuta
- A system permitting the private repatriation of hard currency
by traders and overseas workers.
- GDP (gross domestic product)
- A value measure of the flow of domestic goods and services
produced by an economy over a period of time, such as a year. Only
output values of goods for final consumption and for intermediate
production are assumed to be included in final prices. GDP is
sometimes aggregated and shown at market prices, meaning that
indirect taxes and subsidies are included; when these have been
eliminated, the result is GDP at factor cost. The word
gross indicates that deductions for depreciation of
physical assets have not been made.
- GNP (gross national product)
- GDP (q.v.) plus the net income or loss stemming from
transactions with foreign countries. GNP is the broadest
measurement of the output of goods and services by an economy. It
can be calculated at market prices, which include indirect taxes
and subsidies. Because indirect taxes and subsidies are only
transfer payments, GNP is often calculated at a factor cost,
removing indirect taxes and subsidies.
- International Monetary Fund
- Established along with the World Bank (q.v.) in 1945,
the IMF is a specialized agency affiliated with the United Nations
and is responsible for stabilizing international exchange rates and
payments. The main business of the IMF is the provision of loans to
its members (including industrialized and developing countries)
when they experience balance of payments difficulties. These loans
frequently carry conditions that require substantial internal
economic adjustments by the recipients, most of which are
- A group of persons tracing descent from a common ancestor; in
Somalia the ancestor is male, and descent is traced through males.
The group carries his name. A lineage may be part of a larger one
and may consist of several smaller ones.
- Somali shilling (Sh)
- Currency of Somalia since national independence in 1960;
divided into 100 Somali cents (centesimi). Exchange rates have
varied considerably; average rates for the years 1987-89 as
follows: US$1 equaled Sh105.18 (1987); Sh107.45 (1988); Sh490.68
(1989); Sh1,299 (May 31, 1990). From 1960 to 1971, US$1 equaled
7.143 shillings. The shilling began to fluctuate in the 1970s but
remained around 6 to 7 shillings per US dollar. Beginning in 1981,
a two-tier system was introduced, with the official rate following
the market rate.
- wadad (pl., wadaddo)
- A religious figure or functionary; member of an Islamic
religious order or brotherhood or of a hereditary lineage of
religious figures; the Arabic term shaykh is sometimes
used for wadad.
- Spear carrier (warrior). Applied to adult males, particularly
those of the pastoral tradition; excluded from this category are
religious figures (wadad--q.v.).
- World Bank
- Informal name used to designate a group of three affiliated
international institutions: the International Bank for
Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), the International
Development Association (IDA), and the International Finance
Corporation (IFC). The IBRD, established in 1945, has the primary
purpose of providing loans to developing countries for productive
projects. The IDA, a legally separate loan fund but administered by
the staff of the IBRD, was set up in 1960 to furnish credits to the
poorest developing countries on much easier terms than those of
conventional IBRD loans. The IFC, founded in 1956, supplements the
activities of the IBRD through loans and assistance specifically
designed to encourage the growth of productive private enterprises
in the less developed countries. The president and certain senior
officers of the IBRD hold the same positions in the IFC. The three
institutions are owned by the governments of the countries that
subscribe their capital. To participate in the World Bank group,
member states must first belong to the International Monetary Fund