Glossary -- Pakistan
- fiscal year (FY)
- July 1 to June 30; FY 1994, for example, ran from July 1993
through June 1994.
- gross domestic product (GDP)
- A value measure of the flow of domestic goods and services
produced by an economy over a period of time, usually one year.
Only output values of goods for final consumption and investment
are included because the values of primary and intermediate
production are assumed to be included in final prices. GDP is
sometimes aggregated and shown at market prices, meaning that
indirect taxes and subsidies are included; when these have been
eliminated, the result is GDP at factor cost. The word
gross indicates that deductions for depreciation of
physical assets have not been made. See also gross
- gross national product (GNP)
- Gross domestic product (q.v.) plus the net income or
loss stemming from transactions with foreign countries. GNP is the
broadest measure of the output of goods and services of an economy.
It can be calculated at market prices, which include indirect taxes
and subsidies. Because indirect taxes and subsidies are only
transfer payments, GNP is often calculated at factor cost by
removing indirect taxes and subsidies.
- haq mehr
- Promissory gift from the bride's in-laws at the time of
marriage. A kind of bridewealth based on Islamic traditions
stipulated in the marriage contract, to be paid to the wife in the
event of divorce or her husband's early death.
- hudood (sing.,
- The most serious kinds of crime in Islamic law, such as those
pertaining to theft and adultery.
- Generally the leader of congregational prayers, implying no
ordination or special spiritual powers beyond sufficient education
to carry out this function. The word is also used figuratively by
many Sunni (q.v.) Muslims to mean the leader of the
Islamic community. Among Shia (q.v.) Muslims, it indicates
the particular descendant of the House of Ali who is believed to
have been God's designated repository of the spiritual authority
inherent in that line. The identity of this individual and the
means of ascertaining his identity have been the major issues
causing divisions among the Shia.
- International Monetary Fund
- Established along with the World Bank (q.v.) in 1945,
the IMF is a specialized agency affiliated with the United Nations
and is responsible for stabilizing international exchange loans to
its members (including industrialized and developing countries)
when they experience balance of payments difficulties. These loans
frequently carry conditions that require substantial international
economic adjustments by the recipients, most of which are
- A tax imposed on non-Muslims in a Muslim state meant to
compensate the state for the protection given to non-Muslims who
are not permitted to serve in the military.
- Immigrant or descendant of immigrants from India who fled to
Pakistan after partition in 1947.
- mujahidin (sing.,
- Fighters of a jihad, a Muslim holy war; Afghan freedom
- Generic term for members of the Islamic clergy; usually refers
to preachers or other low-ranking clerics who have not earned the
right to interpret religious laws.
- Muslims deserving of receiving zakat (q.v.)
as stipulated in the Quran, such as the poor, the needy, recent
converts to Islam, those who do the good works of God, and those
who collect and disburse zakat.
- Rule of the Prophet, i.e., rule by sharia (q.v.) law
according to Zia ul-Haq's use of the term.
- Term used for speakers of Pakhtu or Pashtu, who are frequently
called Pathans or Pashtuns. The tribes north of Peshawar are mostly
Pahktu speaking, those south of Peshawar mostly Pashtu speaking.
- Tenets of the Pakhtun code of honor.
- Pakhtuns (q.v.).
- Successor to the founder of a Sufi (q.v.) order or of
a local subdivision of an order; in the Sufi tradition, a religious
man considered to have mystic powers.
- rupee (R or Re; pl., Rs)
- The national currency, consisting of 100 paisa. From 1947 to
1972, Pakistan was a member of the sterling area, but in 1971, when
the United States dollar was devalued, the rupee was unpegged from
sterling and pegged to the dollar at the rate of Rs4.76 per US$1.
On May 12, 1972, the rupee was devalued from Rs4.76 to Rs11 per
US$1. In February 1973, when the dollar was again devalued, the
rupee maintained its value in terms of gold, and its value in
relation to the dollar rose to Rs9.90 per US$1, where it remained
until January 1982. After January 1982, the rupee was pegged to a
market basket of currencies important to Pakistan's trade. The
rupee subsequently depreciated steadily against the dollar,
reaching Rs30.30 to US$1 at the end of February 1994. Notes are
printed in denominations of Rs 1000, 500, 100, 50, 10, 5, 2, and 1.
Coins are minted in denominations of Rs1, as well as 50, 10, 5, 2,
and 1 paisa.
- Islamic law. Based on the Quran and the sunna
(q.v.) with interpretations of Muslim jurisprudence. There
are four major Sunni (q.v.) schools (of which the Hanafi
is dominant in Pakistan) and one Shia (q.v.) school
- The smaller of the two major subdivisions of Islam. In
Pakistan, the two principal subgroups of Shiism are the "Twelvers"
(Ithna Ashari), who follow the same system as the majority group in
Iran, and the "Seveners" (Ismailis or Agha Khanis).
- South Asian Association for Regional
- Comprises the seven nations of South Asia: Bangladesh, Bhutan,
India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka; headquartered in
Kathmandu. Founded as South Asia Regional Cooperation (SARC) at a
meeting for foreign ministers in New Delhi on August 1-2, 1983; the
group was renamed when the 1983 agreement was ratified at the
inaugural summit meeting at Dhaka, Bangladesh, on December 7-8,
1985. SAARC's goal is to effect economic, technical, and cultural
cooperation, and to provide a forum for discussions of South Asia's
- A follower of Sufism, or Islamic mysticism.
- In common usage refers to the deeds and utterances of Muhammad
that form the basis for the practice of the Muslim community.
- The larger of the two major subdivisions of Islam, followed by
a majority of Pakistanis.
- (sing., alim), Islamic scholars.
- World Bank
- Informal name used to designate a group of four affiliated
international institutions: the International Bank for
Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), the International
Development Association (IDA), and the International Finance
Corporation (IFC), and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency
(MIGA). The IBRD, established in 1945, has as its primary purpose
the provision of loans to developing countries for productive
projects. The IDA, a legally separate loan fund but administered by
the staff of the IBRD, was set up in 1960 to furnish credits to the
poorest developing countries on much easier terms than those of
conventional IBRD loans. The IFC, founded in 1956, supplements the
activities of the IBRD through loans and assistance designed
specifically to encourage the growth of productive private
enterprises in the less developed countries. The MIGA, founded in
1988, insures private foreign investment in developing countries
against various noncommercial risks.The president and certain
senior officers of the IBRD hold the same positions in the IFC. The
four institutions are owned by the governments of the countries
that subscribe their capital. To participate in the World Bank
group, member states must first belong to the International
Monetary Fund (IMF--q.v.).
- Islamic system of social welfare based on an alms tax on wealth
held more than a year.