Glossary -- Cambodia
- One destined to become a buddha (enlightened one); a person who
has achieved enlightenment, but who defers achieving nirvana in
order to help others achieve it.
- Also known as Chams, as Khmer Islam, and as Cham-Malay; a
Muslim minority people.
- fiscal year (FY)
- Calendar year.
- Gross domestic product (GDP)
- The value of domestic goods and services produced by an economy
over a certain period, such as a year. Only output of goods for
final consumption and for investment are included because the
values of primary and of intermediate production are assumed to be
included in final prices. GDP sometimes is aggregated and shown in
market prices, meaning that indirect taxes and subsidies are
included; when these have been eliminated, the reductions for
depreciation of physical assets have not been made. See
also gross national product.
- Gross national product (GNP)
- gross domestic product (GDP) adjusted by net income (such as
return on investments), or loss (such as debt service payments),
arising from transactions with foreign countries. GNP is the
broadest measure of the output of goods and of services by an
economy. It can be calculated at market prices, which include
indirect taxes and subsidies. GNP is often calculated at factor
cost by removing indirect taxes and subsidies because these are
only transfer payments. See also gross domestic product.
- International Monetary Fund
- Established along with the World Bank (q.v.) in 1945,
the IMF is a specialized agency affiliated with the United Nations;
it is responsible for stabilizing international exchange rates and
payments. The main business of the IMF is the provision of loans to
its members (including industrialized and developing countries)
when they experience balance of payments difficulties. These loans
frequently carry conditions that require substantial internal
economic adjustments by the recipients, most of which are
- Six areas into which Cambodia was divided in 1973.
- The Khmer Republic's currency unit, divided into 100 sen. Since
October 29, 1971, its exchange rate has been adjusted by the
National Bank of Cambodia according to market fluctuations; the
initial rate, set on October 29, 1971, was 140 riels to US$1. Past
exchange rates have been 35 riels to US$1 (January 1955 to August
1969) and 55.4 riels to US$1 (August 1969 to October 1971,
- The Soviet Union's currency unit. In June 1987, its value was
approximately 0.64 rubles to US$1.
- Ascetic community within which a man can improve his karma;
brotherhood of Buddhist monks; the Theravada Buddhist clergy.
- World Bank
- Informal name used to designate a group of three affiliated
international institutions: the International Bank for
Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), the International
Development Association (IDA), and the International Finance
Corporation (IFC). The IBRD, established in 1945, has the primary
purpose of providing loans to developing countries for productive
projects. The IDA, a legally separate loan fund, administered,
however, by the staff of the IBRD, was set up in 1960 to furnish
credits to the poorest developing countries on much easier terms
than those of conventional IBRD loans. The IFC, founded in 1956,
supplements the activities of the IBRD through loans and through
assistance designed specifically to encourage the growth of
productive private enterprises in the less developed countries. The
president and certain senior officers of the IBRD hold the same
positions in the IFC. The three institutions are owned by the
governments of the countries that subscribe their capital. To
participate in the World Bank group, member states must first
belong to the International Monetary Fund (q.v.).