Gould, Lewis. William McKinley: A Bibliography. Westport, CT: Meckler, 1988.
________. The Presidency of William McKinley. Lawrence, KS: Regents Press of Kansas, 1980.
________. The Spanish-American War and President McKinley. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1982.
Josephson, Matthew. The Robber Barons. New York: Harcourt, Brace, and Company, 1962.
Leech, Margaret. In the Days of McKinley. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1959.
Expositions and World's Fairs
Benedict, Burton. The Anthropology of World's Fairs: San Francisco's Panama-Pacific International Exposition of 1915. Berkeley, 1983.
Davis, Julia. "International Expositions 1851-1900," American Association of Architectural Bibliographers. Papers 4 (1967): 47-130.
Dellinger, H. Paul. Fairs Are for Everybody. Waco, TX, 1965.
Findling, John E., and Kimberly D. Pelle. Historical Dictionary of World's Fairs and Expositions, 1851-1988 (Westport, CN: 1990).
Gideon, Siegfried. "Can Expositions Survive?" Architectural Forum 69 (December 1938): 439-43.
Greenhalgh, Paul. Ephemeral Vistas: The Expositions Universelles, Great Expositions, and World's Fairs, 1851-1939 Manchester, 1988.
Harris, Neil. "Great American Fairs and American Cities: The Role of the Chicago Columbian Exposition," Cultural Excursions: Marketing Appetites and Cultural Tastes in Modern America.. Chicago, 1990.
Hill, John, and Carron Payne, comps. World's Fairs and Expos: The Modern Era. Belconnen, Australia, 1982.
The Rand McNally Hand-Book to the Pan-American Exposition, Buffalo and Niagara Falls. New York: Rand McNally & Co., 1901.
Rydell, Robert W. All the World's a Fair: Visions of Empire at American International Expositions, 1876-1916. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984.
Rydell, Robert W. World of Fairs: The Century-of-Progress Expositions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993.
Smithsonian Institution Libraries. The Books of the Fairs: Materials about World's Fairs, 1834-1916, in the Smithsonian Institution Libraries. Chicago: American Library Association, 1992.
Waters, H.W. History of Fairs and Expositions: Their Classification, Functions, and Values.(London, 1939).
Other Reference Sources at the Library of Congress
The Papers of President William McKinley
Prints and Photographs Division
Arnold, Charles Dudley. Photographs of the Pan-American Exposition, Buffalo, New York, 1901 (approximately 350 photographs). Lot 4654.
Johnston, Frances Benjamin. Photographs of President McKinley's inauguration and administration, 1898. Lot 9214.
Johnston, Frances Benjamin. Photographs of the Pan-American Exposition, Buffalo, New York, 1901 (267 photographs). Lot 2967.
Motion Picture, Broadcasting and Recorded Sound Division
The George Kleine Collection of Early Motion Pictures
The Theodore Roosevelt Association Film Collection